United States

Journal Articles


Hoxha I, Braha M, Syrogiannouli L, et al. Caesarean section in uninsured women in the USA: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2019;9:e025356

Goodman DC, Ganduglia-Cazaban C, Franzini L, Stukel TA, Wasserman JR, Murphy MA, Kim Y, Mowitz ME, Tyson JE, Doherty JR, Little GA. Neonatal Intensive Care Variation in Medicaid-Insured Newborns: A Population-Based Study. Journal of Pediatrics. April 2019


Fisher ES, Shortell SM, Savitz LA. Implementation Science: A Potential Catalyst for Delivery System Reform. JAMA 2016;315(4):339-40.

Bekelman JE, Halpern SD, Blankart C, Bynum JP, et al. Comparison of Site of Death, Health Care Utilization, and Hospital Expenditures for Patients Dying With Cancer in 7 Developed Countries. JAMA 2016;315(3):272-283.


Beck AF, Florin TA, Campanella S, Shah SS. Geographic variation in hospitilization for lower respiratory tract infections across one county. JAMA Pediatrics 2015;169:846-54.

Kaushal R, Edwards A, Kern LM. Association between electronic health records and health care utilization. Applied clinical informatics 2015;6:42-55.

Ho T, Dukhovny D, Zupancic JA, Goldmann DA, Horbar JD, Pursley DM. Choosing wisely in newborn medicine: five opportunities to increase value. Pediatrics 2015;136:e482-e9.

Zarkowsky DS, Hicks CW, Arhuidese I, et al. Quality Improvement Targets for Regional Variation in Surgical End-Stage Renal Disease Care. JAMA surgery 2015;150:764-70.

Ralston SL, Harrison W, Wasserman J, Goodman DC. Hospital Variation in Health Care Utilization by Children With Medical Complexity. Pediatrics 2015. Published online October 5, 2015.

Harrison W, Goodman DC. Epidemiologic Trends in Neonatal Intensive Care, 2007-2012. JAMA Pediatr 2015 Sep 1;169(9):855-62  

Forsberg HH, Nelson EC, Reid R, Grossman D, Mastanduno MP, Weiss LT, Fisher ES, Weinstein JN. Using patient-reported outcomes in routine practice: three novel use cases and implications. J Ambul Care Manage 2015 Apr-Jun;38(2):188-95.

Colla CH, Morden NE, Sequist TD, Schpero WL, Rosenthal MB. Choosing Wisely: Prevalence and Correlates of Low-Value Health Care Services in the United States. J Gen Intern Med 2015 Feb;30(2):221-8.


Franzini L, White C, Taychakhoonavudh S, Parikh R, Zezza M, Mikhail O. Variation in inpatient hospital prices and outpatient service quantities drive geographic differences in private spending in Texas. Health services research 2014;49:1944-63.

Smieliauskas F, MacMahon H, Salgia R, Shih Y-CT. Geographic Variation in Radiologist Capacity and Widespread Implementation of Lung Cancer CT Screening. Journal of medical screening 2014:0969141314548055.

Brooks G. A, Li L, Uno H, Hassett M. J, Landon B. E, Schrag D. Acute hospital care is the chief driver of regional spending variation in Medicare patients with advanced cancer. Health Aff (Millwood). 2014 Oct;33(10):1793-800.

Stopka TJ, Krawczyk C, Gradziel P, Geraghty EM. “Use of spatial epidemiology and hot spot analysis to target women eligible for prenatal women, infants and children services”. Am J Public Health. 2014 Feb;104 Suppl 1:S183-9.

Lewis VA, Colla CH, Schpero WL, Shortell SM, Fisher ES. ACO contracting with private and public payers: a baseline comparative analysis. Am J Manag Care 2014 Dec;20(12):1008-14. 

Fisher ES, Corrigan J. Accountable health communities: getting there from here. JAMA 2014 Nov 26;312(20):2093-4.

Colla CH, Goodney PP, Lewis VA, Nallamothu BK, Gottlieb DJ, Meara E. Implementation of a Pilot Accountable Care Organization Payment Model and the Use of Discretionary and Nondiscretionary Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2014 Nov 25;130(22):1954-61.

Yasaitis LC, Bubolz T, Skinner JS, Chandra A. Local population characteristics and hemoglobin A1c testing rates among diabetic Medicare beneficiaries. PLoS One 2014 Oct 31;9(10):e111119.

Bekelis K, Fisher ES, Labropoulos N, Zhou W, Skinner J. Variations in the Intensive Use of Head CT for Elderly Patients with Hemorrhagic Stroke. Radiology 2014 Oct 29:141362 

Brooke BS, Kraiss LW, Stone DH, Nolan B, De Martino RR, Reiber GE, Goodman DC, Cronenwett JL, Goodney PP. Improving outcomes for diabetic patients undergoing revascularization for critical limb ischemia: does the quality of outpatient diabetic care matter?. Ann Vasc Surg 2014 Oct;28(7):1719-28.

Colla CH, Schpero WL, Gottlieb DJ, McClurg AB, Albert PG, Baum N, Finison K, Franzini L, Kitching G, Knudson S, Parikh R, Symes R, Fisher ES. Tracking Spending Among Commercially Insured Beneficiaries Using a Distributed Data Model. Am J Manag Care 2014;20(8):650-657.

Morden NE, Munson JC, Colla CH, Skinner JS, Bynum JP, Zhou W, Meara E. Prescription opioid use among disabled medicare beneficiaries: intensity, trends, and regional variation. Med Care 2014 Sep;52(9):852-9.

Weinstein SJ, House SA, Chang CH, Wasserman JR, Goodman DC, Morden NE. Small Geographic Area Variations in Prescription Drug Use. Pediatrics 2014 Sep;134(3):563-70.

Colla CH, Fisher ES. Beyond PCMHs and Accountable Care Organizations: Payment Reform That Encourages Customized Care. J Gen Intern Med 2014 Oct;29(10):1325-7. 

Brooke BS, Stone DH, Cronenwett JL, Nolan B, DeMartino RR, MacKenzie TA, Goodman DC, Goodney PP. Early primary care provider follow-up and readmission after high-risk surgery. JAMA Surg 2014 Aug;149(8):821-8. 

Brown JR, Chang CH, Zhou W, MacKenzie TA, Malenka DJ, Goodman DC. Health system characteristics and rates of readmission after acute myocardial infarction in the United States. J Am Heart Assoc 2014 May 20;3(3):e000714.

Wennberg DE, Sharp SM, Bevan G, Skinner JS, Gottlieb DJ, Wennberg JE. A population health approach to reducing observational intensity bias in health risk adjustment: Cross sectional analysis of insurance claims. BMJ 2014;348:g2392.

Bekelis K, Roberts DW, Zhou W, Skinner JS. Fragmentation of Care and the Use of Head Computed Tomography in Patients With Ischemic Stroke. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2014 May;7(3):430-6.

Brown JR, Sox HC, Goodman DC. Financial incentives to improve quality: skating to the puck or avoiding the penalty box?. JAMA 2014 Mar 12;311(10):1009-10.

Corallo AN, Croxford R, Goodman DC, Bryan EL, Srivastava D, Stukel TA. A systematic review of medical practice variation in OECD countries. Health Policy 2014 Jan;114(1):5-14.

Wennberg JE. Forty years of unwarranted variation–and still counting. Health Policy 2014 Jan;114(1):1-2.

Goodney PP, Travis LL, Brooke BS, Demartino RR, Goodman DC, Fisher ES, Birkmeyer JD. Relationship between regional spending on vascular care and amputation rate. JAMA Surg 2014 Jan;149(1):34-42.


White R, Geraghty E, Brunson A, Murin S, Wun T, Spencer F, Romano P. “High Variation between Hospitals in Vena Cava Filter Use for Venous Thromboembolism.” JAMA Intern Med 2013 Apr 8;173(7):506-12.

Nyweide DJ, Anthony DL, Bynum JP, Strawderman RL, Weeks WB, Casalino LP, Fisher ES. Continuity of care and the risk of preventable hospitalization in older adults. JAMA Intern Med 2013 Nov 11;173(20):1879-85.

Lewis VA, Colla CH, Carluzzo KL, Kler SE, Fisher ES. Accountable care organizations in the United States: market and demographic factors associated with formation. Health Serv Res 2013 Dec;48(6 Pt 1):1840-58.

Goodman DC, Robertson RG. Accelerating Physician Workforce Transformation Through Competitive Graduate Medical Education Funding. Health Affairs 2013 Nov;32(11):1887-92.

Birkmeyer JD, Reames BN, McCulloch P, Carr AJ, Campbell WB, Wennberg JE. Understanding of regional variation in the use of surgery. Lancet 2013 Sep 28;382(9898):1121-29.

Likosky DS, Zhou W, Malenka DJ, Borden WB, Nallamothu BK, Skinner JS. Growth in Medicare Expenditures for Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison of 1998 Through 1999 and 2008. JAMA Intern Med 2013 Dec 9-23;173(22):2055-61. 

Grande SW, Durand MA, Fisher ES, Elwyn G. Physicians as part of the solution? Community-based participatory research as a way to get shared decision making into practice. J Gen Intern Med 2014 Jan;29(1):219-22.

Morden NE, Schwartz LM, Fisher ES, Woloshin S. Accountable prescribing. N Engl J Med 2013 Jul 25;369(4):299-302.

Yasaitis LC, Bynum JP, Skinner JS. Association between physician supply, local practice norms, and outpatient visit rates. Med Care 2013 Jun;51(6):524-31.

Lewis VA, McClurg AB, Smith J, Fisher ES, Bynum JP. Attributing patients to accountable care organizations: performance year approach aligns stakeholders’ interests. Health Affairs 2013 Mar;32(3):587-95.

Wennberg JE, Staiger DO, Sharp SM, Gottlieb DJ, Bevan G, McPherson K, Welch HG. Observational intensity bias associated with illness adjustment: cross sectional analysis of insurance claims. BMJ 2013;346:f549.

Teno JM, Gozalo PL, Bynum JPW, Leland NE, Miller SC, Morden NE, Scupp T, Goodman DC, Mor V. Change in End-of-Life Care for Medicare Beneficiaries Site of Death, Place of Care, and Health Care Transitions in 2000, 2005, and 2009. JAMA 2013;309(5):470-477.

Goodney PP, Holman K, Henke PK, Travis LL, Dimick JB, Stukel TA, Fisher ES, Birkmeyer JD. Regional intensity of vascular care and lower extremity amputation rates. J Vasc Surg 2013 June;57(6):1471-80.

Goodney PP, Brooke BS, Wallaert J, Travis L, Lucas FL, Goodman DC, Cronenwett JL, Stone DH. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair, race, and volume in thoracic aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg 2013 Jan;57(1):56-63.


Epstein A. J, Polsky D, Yang F, Yang L, Groeneveld PW, Geographic variation in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator use and heart failure survival. Med Care. 2012 Jan;50(1):10-7.

McDonald DC, Carlson K, Izrael D. Geographic variation in opioid prescribing in the U.S. J Pain. 2012 Oct;13(10):988-96.

Donohue JM; Morden NE; Gellad WF; Bynum JP; Zhou W; Hanlon JT; Skinner J. “Sources of regional variation in Medicare Part D drug spending.” N Engl J Med. 366(6):530-8, 2012 Feb 09.


Bell, John-Erik. Leung, Brian C. Spratt, Kevin F. Koval, Ken J. Weinstein, James D. Goodman, David C. Tosteson, Anna N A. Trends and variation in incidence, surgical treatment, and repeat surgery of proximal humeral fractures in the elderly. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery – American Volume. 93(2):121-31, 2011 Jan.

Welch, H Gilbert. Sharp, Sandra M. Gottlieb, Dan J. Skinner, Jonathan S. Wennberg, John E. Geographic variation in diagnosis frequency and risk of death among Medicare beneficiaries. JAMA. 305(11):1113-8, 2011 Mar 16.


Amico, Peter. Aran, Christian. Avila, Carlos. HIV spending as a share of total health expenditure: an analysis of regional variation in a multi-country study. PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource]. 5(9):e12997, 2010.

Finegan, Michael S. Gao, Jian. Pasquale, Donald. Campbell, James. Trends and geographic variation of potentially avoidable hospitalizations in the veterans health-care system. Health Services Management Research. 23(2):66-75, 2010 May.

Goodney, Philip P. Travis, Lori L. Malenka, David. Bronner, Kristen K. Lucas, F Lee. Cronenwett, Jack L. Goodman, David C. Fisher, Elliott S. Regional variation in carotid artery stenting and endarterectomy in the Medicare population. Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality & Outcomes. 3(1):15-24, 2010 Jan.

Hudspeth MP, Hill TN, Lewis JA, et al. Post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant immunization practices in the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 2010;54(7):970-975.

Johnson, Pamela Jo. Call, Kathleen Thiede. Blewett, Lynn A. The importance of geographic data aggregation in assessing disparities in American Indian prenatal care. American Journal of Public Health. 100(1):122-8, 2010 Jan.

Katz SJ, Hawley ST, Abrahamse P, et al. Does it matter where you go for breast surgery?: attending surgeon’s influence on variation in receipt of mastectomy for breast cancer. Medical Care. 2010; 48(10):892-899.

Keenan PS. Cleary PD. O’Malley AJ. Landon BE. Zaborski L. Zaslavsky AM. Geographic area variations in the Medicare health plan era. Medical Care. 48(3):260-6, 2010 Mar.

Lucas, Frances Lee. Sirovich, Brenda E. Gallagher, Patricia M. Siewers, Andrea E. Wennberg, David E. Variation in cardiologists’ propensity to test and treat: is it associated with regional variation in utilization? Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality & Outcomes. 3(3):253-60, 2010 May.

Makarov, Danil V. Loeb, Stacy. Landman, Adam B. Nielsen, Matthew E. Gross, Cary P. Leslie, Douglas L. Penson, David F. Desai, Rani A. Regional variation in total cost per radical prostatectomy in the healthcare cost and utilization project nationwide inpatient sample database. Journal of Urology. 183(4):1504-9, 2010 Apr.

Matlock, Dan D. Peterson, Pamela N. Sirovich, Brenda E. Wennberg, David E. Gallagher, Patricia M. Lucas, F Lee. Regional variations in palliative care: do cardiologists follow guidelines? Journal of Palliative Medicine. 13(11):1315-9, 2010 Nov.

Mulley AG Jr., Wennberg JE. Reducing Unwarranted Variation in Clinical Practice by Supporting Clinicians and Patients in Decision Making. In: Gigerenzer G and Gray M, eds. Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions: Envisioning Health Care in 2020. Cambridge: MIT Press 2010. (In Press)

O’Hare, Ann M. Rodriguez, Rudolph A. Hailpern, Susan M. Larson, Eric B. Kurella Tamura, Manjula. Regional variation in health care intensity and treatment practices for end-stage renal disease in older adults. JAMA. 304(2):180-6, 2010 Jul 14.


Anthony, Denise L. Herndon, M Brooke. Gallagher, Patricia M. Barnato, Amber E. Bynum, Julie P W. Gottlieb, Daniel J. Fisher, Elliott S. Skinner, Jonathan S. How much do patients’ preferences contribute to resource use? Health Affairs. 28(3):864-73, 2009 May-Jun.

Baicker, Katherine. Chandra, Amitabh. A trillion-dollar geography lesson. Health Affairs. 28(5):1448-51, 2009 Sep-Oct.

Chen, Li-Wu. Zhang, Wanqing. Sun, Junfeng. Mueller, Keith J. The magnitude, variation, and determinants of rural hospital resource utilization associated with hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice. 15(3):216-22, 2009 May-Jun.

FitzGerald, John D. Boscardin, W John. Ettner, Susan L. Changes in regional variation of Medicare home health care utilization and service mix for patients undergoing major orthopedic procedures in response to changes in reimbursement policy. Health Services Research. 44(4):1232-52, 2009

Fisher, Elliott S. Bynum, Julie P. Skinner, Jonathan S. Slowing the growth of health care costs–lessons from regional variation. New England Journal of Medicine. 360(9):849-52, 2009 Feb 26.

Goodman DC. Unwarranted Variation in Pediatric Medical Care. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2009;56:745-755.

Magner, David. Mirocha, James. Gewertz, Bruce L. Regional variation in the utilization of carotid endarterectomy. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 49(4):893-901; discussion 901, 2009 Apr.

Mulley AG. Inconvenient truths about supplier induced demand and unwarranted variation in medical practice. BMJ 2009;339:1007-09.

Wales McCann E, Baines EA, Gray JR, Procter AM. Improving Service Delivery by Evaluation of the Referral Pattern and Capacity in a Clinical Genetics Setting. Am J Med Genet Part C Semin Med Genet. 2009;151C:200-206.


Bynum J, Bernal E, Gottlieb D, Fisher ES. Assigning Ambulatory Patients and their Physicians to Hospitals: A Method for Obtaining Population-Based Hospital Performance Measurements Health Services Research 2007 42 (1p1), 45–62.

Stukel TA, Fisher ES, Wennberg DE, et al. Analysis of observational studies in the presence of treatment selection bias: effects of invasive cardiac management on AMI survival using propensity score and instrumental variable methods. JAMA. 2007;297(3):278-285.


Baicker, K. Buckles, K.S. Chandra, A. Geographic variation in the appropriate use of cesarean delivery. Health Affairs. 25(5):w355-67, 2006 Sept-Oct.


Linton A, Peterson MR, Williams TV, et al. Clinical case mix adjustment of cesarean delivery rates in U.S. military hospitals, 2002. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2005;105(3):598-606.

Stukel TA, Lucas FL, Wennberg DE. Long-term outcomes of regional variations in intensity of invasive vs. medical management of Medicare patients with acute myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2005; 293(11):1329-1337.

Tempest, V., Higgs, G., McDonald, K., Iredale, R., Bater, T., & Gray, J. (2005). A pilot study of spatial patterns in referrals to a multicentre cancer genetics service. Community Genetics, 8(2), 73-79.


The Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care

Atlases and reports, 1996-2019


The Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care

Atlases and reports, 1996-2019