Journal Articles


Tim Wilson, Gwyn Bevan, Muir Gray, et. al. Developing a culture of stewardship: how to prevent the Tragedy of the Commons in universal health systems. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2020.

Mary Elizabeth Jones, Irene Petersen, Kate Walters et. al. Differences in Psychotropic Drug Prescribing Between Ethnic Groups of People with Dementia in the United Kingdom. Clinical Epidemiology. 2020.


Dougal S Hargreaves, Sandeepa Arora, Carolina Viveiro et. al. Association of quality of paediatric epilepsy care with mortality and unplanned hospital admissions among children and young people with epilepsy in England: a national longitudinal data linkage study. Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. 2019.


Sandeepa Arora, C Ronny Cheung, Christopher Sherlaw-Johnson, Dougal S Hargreaves. Use of age-specific hospital catchment populations to investigate geographical variation in inpatient admissions for children and young people in England: retrospective, cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2018.


Gaunt AC, Neumann C, Phillips JS, Swan I. BAHA surgery in England–variation in service provision for adults across Strategic Health Authority regions revealed by the Hospital Episode Statistics database. Clinical Otolaryngology. 2015.


Laura Schang, Chiara De Poli, Mara Airoldi et. al. Using an epidemiological model to investigate unwarranted variation: the case of ventilation tubes for otitis media with effusion in England. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy. 2014.


Ham C. Doctors must lead efforts to reduce waste and variation in practice. BMJ 2013;346.


Mays N. Reducing unwarranted variations in healthcare in the English NHS. BMJ 2011;342.


Anyanwu AC, Bridgewater B, Adams DH, Anyanwu AC, Bridgewater B, Adams DH. The lottery of mitral valve repair surgery. Heart 2010 Dec;96(24):1964-7.

Bragg, F. et al. 2010. Variation in rates of caesarean section among English NHS trusts after accounting for maternal and clinical risk: cross sectional study. Bmj 341:c5065-c5065.

Jeevan R, Cromwell DA, Browne JP, Trivella M, Pereira J, Caddy CM, et al. Regional variation in use of immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer in England. Eur J Surg Oncol 2010 Aug;36(8):750-5.


Cromwell DA, Mahmood TA, Templeton A, van der Meulen JH. Surgery for menorrhagia within English regions: variation in rates of endometrial ablation and hysterectomy. BJOG 2009 Sep;116(10):1373-9.

Downing A, Lansdown M, West RM, et al. Changes in and predictors of length of stay in hospital after surgery for breast cancer between 1997/98 and 2004/05 in two regions of Englad: a population-based study. BMC Health Services Research. 2009;9202.

El-Amir AN, Keenan TD, bu-Bakra M, Tanner V, Yeates D, Goldacre MJ, et al. Trends in rates of retinal surgery in England from 1968 to 2004: studies of hospital statistics. British Journal of Ophthalmology 2009 Dec;93(12):1585-90.

McComb JM, Plummer CJ, Cunningham MW, Cunningham D, McComb JM, Plummer CJ, et al. Inequity of access to implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in England: possible causes of geographical variation in implantation rates. Europace 2009 Oct;1

Wang KY, Seed P, Schofield P, Ibrahim S, Ashworth M, Wang KY, et al. Which practices are high antibiotic prescribers? A cross-sectional analysis. British Journal of General Practice 2009 Oct;59(567):e315-e320.


Hussey P, Anderson G, Bertheholt JM, Feek C, Keyyey E, Osborn R, Raleigh V, Epstein A. Trends in socioeconomic disparities in health care quality in four countries. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 2008; 20:53-61.


Keenan T, Rosen P, Yeates D, Goldacre M, Keenan T, Rosen P, et al. Time trends and geographical variation in cataract surgery rates in England: study of surgical workload. British Journal of Ophthalmology 2007 Jul;91(7):901-4.

Patel N, Adatia R, Mellemgaard A, Jack R, Moller H, Patel N, et al. Variation in the use of chemotherapy in lung cancer. British Journal of Cancer 2007 Mar 26;96(6):886-90.


Dixon T, Shaw ME, Dieppe PA, Dixon T, Shaw ME, Dieppe PA. Analysis of regional variation in hip and knee joint replacement rates in England using Hospital Episodes Statistics. Public Health 2006. Jan;120(1):83-90.


Bottle A, Aylin P, Bottle A, Aylin P. Variations in vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy by region and trust in England. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2005 Mar;112(3):326-8.

Caldon LJ, Walters SJ, Reed JA, Murphy A, Worley A, Reed MW, et al. Case-mix fails to explain variation in mastectomy rates: management of screen-detected breast cancer in a UK region 1997- 2003. British Journal of Cancer 2005 Jan 17;92(1):55-9.


Public Health England and NHS

Atlases of Variation in Health and Health Care

The King’s Fund

Conference: Reducing Unwarranted Variations in Health Care, September 2011

NHS Quarterly Monitoring Report for October 2015

Presentation: Jack Wennberg’s Tracking Medicine, December 2010

Presentation: John Appleby’s Variations in health care: The good, the bad and the inexplicable, April 2011


Public Health England

The NHS Atlas of Variation in Healthcare

The King’s Fund

A high-performing NHS? A review of progress, 1997-2010

Older people and emergency bed use: Exploring variation

Place-based systems of care: A way forward for the NHS in England

Ten design principles for place-based systems of care

Variations in health care: The good, the bad and the inexplicable